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Statement and Impacts Report on Gender, Diversity, and Quality of Life

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Statement on Gender Equality and Diversity in Canada

In the last century, Canada has seen major advancements in gender equality and diversity. Women, Indigenous peoples, LGBTQ2 people, Black and racialized Canadians, and people with disabilities have increasingly had their voices heard, entered the workforce in growing numbers, shone in all fields, and held positions as leaders in politics, business, academia, and the community. Through deliberate policy choices, the government is advancing efforts that feminist and intersectional activists have championed for years, such as a national early learning and child care system and a National Action Plan to End Gender-Based Violence.

Yet, significant challenges remain, many of which have been amplified by the pandemic. As we move forward, we must build on the important progress that has been made in recent decades, and go even further to strengthen equality, diversity, and inclusion.

If Canada has not won the war against the exclusion of women, we have fought the first important battles. We have rejected the exclusionary politics that once denied women access to the levers of influence, power and full societal participation. We lead other nations in the opportunities we open to women...Yet despite these achievements - and they are not inconsiderable - we still have terrain to take. Women’s equality issues remain very much alive. Few women occupy the highest seats of political office and commerce...we have not achieved pay equity. And violence against women is a persistent problem.

Beverley McLachlin, Canada’s first woman Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court of Canada

The government remains committed to upholding a decision-making process that considers the impacts of policies, programs, and legislation on all Canadians in a budgetary context, as enshrined in the Gender Budgeting Act. To do that, the government uses two tools: the Gender Results Framework (GRF) and Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA Plus).

Canada’s GRF is a whole-of-government articulation of Canada’s gender equality priorities and goals with matching indicators to track developments toward these goals. The GRF is also used to present statistics on diverse groups of people, including Indigenous peoples, people with disabilities, racialized Canadians, and LGBTQ2 people.

The Impacts Report, which leverages GBA Plus and Canada’s Quality of Life Framework, provides a summary of the impacts on Canadians for each new measure in Budget 2022.

Figure 1
Gender Equality Goals for Canada
Figure 1: Gender Equality Goals for Canada

The Gender Results Framework is aligned with the Government of Canada’s policy of GBA Plus, ensuring that gender is considered in addition and in relation to other intersecting identity factors, including age, disability, education, ethnicity, race, geography, sex, religion, economic status, and language.

Text version

Gender equality goals for Canada

Education and Skills Development

Equal opportunities and diversified paths in education and skills development

Economic Participation and Prosperity

Equal and full participation in the economy

Leadership and Democratic Participation

Gender equality in leadership roles and at all levels of decision-making

Gender-Based Violence and Access to Justice

Eliminating gender-based violence and harassment, and promoting security of the person and access to justice

Poverty Reduction, Health and Well-Being

Reduced poverty and improved health outcomes

Gender Equality Around the World

Promoting gender equality to build a more peaceful, inclusive, rules-based and prosperous world

Note on Methodology

Similar to Budget 2021, this Statement uses a dashboard to summarize the status of gender equality and diversity in Canada today. The aggregate narrative in Canada has not changed significantly in the past few years, in large part, because these indicators tend to move slowly over time, without large fluctuations year-over-year.

This year’s Statement puts an emphasis on comparing current outcomes across groups, embracing the concept that no person is composed of a single identity.

Data from many surveys has been leveraged, sometimes from different years. Due to potential differences in methodology and context, small differences across groups should be treated with caution. Additionally, it should be noted that not all Statistics Canada surveys are conducted annually and thus data reflects the most recent available versions.

In this Statement, terminology is largely dictated by the data collection process, which, until recently, continued to reflect binary norms around gender and did not take into account differences between sex at birth and gender identity. With the release of the 2018 Survey on Safety in Public and Private Spaces, Statistics Canada published information on outcomes for transgender and non-binary people for the first time and, in April 2022, Statistics Canada will release its first-ever comprehensive profiles of both transgender and non-binary people in Canada using data from the 2021 Census. Continual investments in disaggregated data, including those in Budget 2021, mean that new statistics on key demographic groups are becoming available. As more data sources become available, future iterations of this report will be able to reflect more details on transgender and non-binary populations.

Statistics for lesbian, gay and bisexual populations in Canada are more frequently available, but due to concerns around small population sizes and protecting privacy, it is not always possible to report on the indicators for each group individually. As a result, lesbian, gay and bisexual populations will often be presented collectively, and occasionally abbreviated as LGB.

This Statement follows Statistics Canada terminology and uses the term "visible minorities" to refer to non-Indigenous racialized Canadians, as it is the official demographic category defined by the Employment Equity Act.

Canada’s Disaggregated Data Action Plan

Budget 2021 announced $172 million over five years, with $36.3 million ongoing, for Statistics Canada for a Disaggregated Data Action Plan (DDAP). This plan aims to provide Canadians with detailed statistical data that highlights the experiences of women, Indigenous peoples, LGBTQ2 people, visible minorities, and Canadians with disabilities, ensuring that fairness and inclusion are a key part of evidence-based policy- and decision-making.

Through the DDAP, Statistics Canada is improving and expanding data collection allowing for greater opportunities for disaggregation by and within key population groups, including in several flagship surveys: the Labour Force Survey (LFS), the Canadian Community Health Survey, and the General Social Survey. These three surveys are heavily used in reporting on the indicators throughout the Gender Results Framework. Due to DDAP-funded expansions of the LFS, for the first time ever, a public table presenting labour market information for visible minority groups will be made available with the April 2022 release. Statistics Canada has also expanded the Canadian Survey on Business Conditions to allow for timely data on business conditions in Canada for businesses majority-owned by women, visible minority sub-populations, Indigenous peoples, persons with a disability, and immigrants to Canada.

A key component of the DDAP is to ensure that the new data and analyses will be easily accessible to the public, policymakers, and data users. To do this, Statistics Canada has expanded its Centre for Gender, Diversity and Inclusion Statistics. It now includes a wide range of indicators, research, and analytical reports on diverse population groups to promote intersectional analyses.

Education and Skills Development

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Education and Skills Development
Goal: Equal opportunities and diversified paths in education and skills development

Educational paths should not be limited by discrimination, norms, stereotypes, or other barriers to access.

Educational attainment
University at bachelor or above
(highest education, 25-64 yrs, %)
University  at bachelor or above - (highest education, 25-64 yrs, %)
Text version
Men Women
1990 15.9 12.2
1991 16.3 12.6
1992 16.8 13.3
1993 17.8 14.2
1994 18.3 15.1
1995 18.3 15.6
1996 18.6 16.0
1997 19.1 16.7
1998 19.6 17.1
1999 20.1 18.2
2000 20.6 19.4
2001 21.4 19.8
2002 21.7 20.6
2003 22.4 21.6
2004 22.3 22.0
2005 23.1 23.3
2006 23.7 24.2
2007 24.1 24.9
2008 24.4 25.7
2009 24.5 26.0
2010 24.9 27.4
2011 25.2 27.8
2012 25.8 29.0
2013 26.2 29.8
2014 26.5 30.3
2015 27.1 31.6
2016 27.9 32.7
2017 28.3 33.5
2018 28.9 34.2
2019 30.0 35.7
2020 31.3 37.5
2021 32.7 38.5
University at bachelor or above
(highest education, 25-64 yrs, %, ~2016)*
University at bachelor or above - (highest education, 25-64 yrs, %, ~2016)*
Text version
Men Women
Total 26 31
Lesbian or gay 43 38
Bisexual 36 34
Indigenous 8 14
Visible minority 42 42
Has a disability 17 22
Recent immigrant (≤ 5 yrs) 51 53
Tradespeople
Apprenticeship or trades
(highest education, 25-64 yrs, %, ~2016)*
Men Women
Total 15 7
Indigenous 19 8
Visible minority 6 4
Has a disability 15 7
Recent immigrant (≤ 5 yrs) 6 4
Lesbian, gay or bisexual 9** 7
Share of registered apprentice certificates
granted to women (%, 2020)
Total 12
Early childhood educators and assistants 97
Hairstylists and estheticians 91
Community and social service workers 91
Heavy duty equipment mechanics 2
Plumbers, pipefitters and steamfitters 2
Refrigeration and air conditioning mechanics 1
High school math, reading, and science
Gender gap (girls minus boys) in test scores
(mean score around 500 pts, selected percentiles, 15 yrs, 2018)
High school math, reading, and science -  Gender gap (girls minus boys) in test scores

Text version
Reading Mathematics Science
Average 29 -5 3
5th 42 2 13
10th 40 2 12
25th 36 0 10
50th 29 -5 3
75th 22 -9 -4
90th 19 -11 -5
95th 18 -14 -7
Adult numeracy and literacy
Test score gap relative to non-Indigenous people
(mean score around 270 pts, 16-65 yrs, 2012)
Adult numeracy and literacy - Test score gap relative to non-Indigenous people
Text version
Numeracy Literacy
First Nations Men -35 -24
Women -26 -17
Métis Men -13 -7
Woman -3 2
Inuit Men -73 -59
Woman -64 -55
Field of study
Proportion of bachelor's students
who were women (%, 2019-20)
Health and related fields 76
Education 75
Social and behavioural sciences and law 69
Mathematics, computer and information sciences 26
Architecture and engineering 25

Note: * indicates the use of different surveys within the same chart; use with caution. ** indicates a high coefficient of variation; use with caution.

Sources: Labour Force Survey, 2016 Census, Canadian Survey on Disability, Canadian Community Health Survey, Registered Apprenticeship Information System, Programme for International Student Assessment, Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies, Postsecondary Student Information System.

As the dashboard above shows, barriers remain to equal opportunities and diversified paths in education and skills development for some Canadians.

To cultivate diversified educational paths and break down barriers limiting options for women, Indigenous, Black and racialized Canadians, and persons with disabilities, the government has invested in programs that support the increasing demand for skills in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The government also continues to support targeted measures that remove participation barriers which prevent women, Indigenous youth, and other marginalized groups from accessing lifelong learning opportunities.

Actions to Support Education and Skills Development
Key Results to Date
  • Indspire has provided over 49,000 scholarships and bursaries since its inception in 2004 to support Indigenous students in their educational goals. In 2020-21, more than $20 million was disbursed to 6,245 Indigenous students. Indspire bursaries have a proven track of success with 90 per cent of recipients graduating and 89 per cent finding employment after graduation.
  • As of March 6, 2022, over 9,100 Apprenticeship Incentive Grants for Women had been issued since its inception in 2018, helping women to pursue careers in the trades, a field traditionally dominated by men.
  • In 2019-20, 550 women were directly supported through Women in Construction Fund projects, and over 319,800 women were reached through a project that promoted awareness of the skilled trades as a career choice.
Budget 2022 Actions*
  • Funding through the Equitable Access to Reading Program to support the production and distribution of alternative format materials for Canadians with print disabilities, creating more learning opportunities for adults.
  • Targeted scholarships and fellowships for promising Black student researchers to ensure equal opportunities for those currently underrepresented.
  • Modernizing Part II of the Employment Insurance Act to ensure more workers are eligible for help before they become unemployed, and that employers can receive direct support to re- train their workforce to ensure diversified paths in skills development.

*Please refer to the Impacts Report to see other Budget 2022 investments that are expected to advance this pillar.

Economic Participation and Prosperity

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Economic Participation and Prosperity
Goal: Equal and full participation in the economy

An economy that includes everyone and improves the standards of living of all Canadians creates strong economic growth for all.

Labour force
Labour force participation rate
(25-64 yrs, %)
Labour force participation rate
Text version
Men Women
1976 91.3 48.5
1977 90.9 49.6
1978 91.2 51.5
1979 91.2 53.2
1980 91.0 54.8
1981 91.0 56.9
1982 89.9 57.7
1983 89.6 59.1
1984 89.3 60.4
1985 89.3 62.2
1986 89.2 63.4
1987 89.0 64.8
1988 88.8 66.4
1989 88.9 67.5
1990 88.4 68.6
1991 87.6 69.2
1992 86.6 68.8
1993 86.4 69.2
1994 86.2 69.2
1995 85.8 69.4
1996 85.7 69.7
1997 86.0 70.4
1998 85.9 71.2
1999 86.1 71.7
2000 86.0 72.2
2001 85.9 72.6
2002 86.4 73.7
2003 86.8 74.9
2004 86.7 75.2
2005 86.6 74.7
2006 86.0 74.7
2007 86.0 75.4
2008 86.2 75.4
2009 85.6 75.8
2010 85.4 75.9
2011 85.4 75.8
2012 85.5 76.2
2013 85.5 76.6
2014 85.3 75.8
2015 85.7 75.8
2016 85.9 76.1
2017 85.9 76.7
2018 85.8 76.9
2019 86.3 77.4
2020 85.5 76.4
2021 86.9 78.1
Labour force participation rate (25-64 yrs, %, ~2016)*
Labour force participation rate (25-64 yrs, %, ~2016)*
Text version
Men Women
Total 85.2 76.1
Indigenous 75.8 68.0
Visible minority 86.5 73.4
Has a disability 68.4 61.7
Recent immigrant
(≤ 5 yrs)
85.7 65.8
Earnings
Gender gap in median income and wages (25-54 yrs, %)
Gender gap in median income and wages (25-54 yrs, %)
Text version
Annual employment income Hourly wages, full-time 
1976 56.7  
1977 53.7  
1978 52.7  
1979 51.9  
1980 51.4  
1981 51.0  
1982 49.9  
1983 47.8  
1984 48.3  
1985 47.4  
1986 47.2  
1987 46.4  
1988 47.0  
1989 43.0  
1990 43.5  
1991 41.9  
1992 39.7  
1993 37.8  
1994 40.5  
1995 37.4  
1996 37.5  
1997 37.6 18.2
1998 36.4 19.6
1999 38.2 17.7
2000 39.4 20.1
2001 37.6 17.8
2002 36.7 18.2
2003 37.1 16.0
2004 36.4 15.5
2005 34.8 15.2
2006 31.9 16.2
2007 32.4 15.3
2008 33.2 14.3
2009 30.0 15.9
2010 31.9 14.0
2011 32.2 14.4
2012 33.3 13.4
2013 29.4 14.5
2014 29.3 12.1
2015 31.6 14.5
2016 30.1 12.7
2017 29.1 14.1
2018 28.3 13.6
2019 26.6 13.8
2020 26.4 11.3
2021 11.7
Proportion in low-wage work
(25-54 yrs, %)**
Full-time employment
Text version
  Men Women
1997 16.7 31.6
1998 17.5 32.7
1999 17.0 32.4
2000 16.3 31.9
2001 14.9 30.1
2002 16.9 31.6
2003 16.4 30.5
2004 16.5 30.0
2005 17.4 30.3
2006 16.4 29.1
2007 15.9 28.1
2008 16.1 28.6
2009 15.9 27.3
2010 18.1 29.6
2011 17.8 28.8
2012 17.6 28.4
2013 18.7 29.0
2014 18.2 28.4
2015 17.6 27.8
2016 19.2 28.3
2017 18.6 27.7
2018 17.2 26.4
2019 18.0 26.5
2020 17.5 25.3
2021 15.8 22.7
Proportion in low-wage work (25-54 yrs, %, 2021)**, ***
Proportion in low-wage work
(25-54 yrs, %, 2021)**, ***
Text version
  Men Women
Total 15.8 22.7
Indigenous 20.7 27.1
Recent immigrant 28.5 41.5
Immigrant 20.2 30.1
Visible minority 23.6 30.9
Type and hours of work
Temporary or involuntary part-time
(25-54 yrs, %, 2021)***
Temporary or involuntary part-
time (25-54 yrs, %, 2021)***
Text version
  Men Women
Total 9.4 12.5
Indigenous 11.7 15.3
Recent immigrant 12.5 18.6
Immigrant 10.0 14.5
Visible minority 11.8 15.3
Full-time employment
(25-54 yrs, %, 2021)***
Full-time employment (25-54 yrs, %, 2021)***
Text version
  Men Women
Total 94.8 85.3
Indigenous 93.4 84.5
Recent immigrant 94.0 84.1
Immigrant 94.6 84.6
Visible minority 93.1 84.7
Unpaid work hours per day
(25-54 yrs, 2015)
Unpaid work hours per day (25-54 yrs, 2015)
Text version
Men Women
Total 2.5 3.8
Indigenous 2.5 3.8
Immigrant 2.5 4.2
Visible minority 2.4 4.2
LGB 1.8 2.7
Has a disability 2.5 3.8
Career choice
Workers who were women (%, 2021)
Nursing 91
Health services support 86
Legal, social, community and education services 86
Trades and construction helpers and labourers 6
Maintenance and equipment operation trades 5
Industrial, electrical and construction trades 5
Child care costs
Average proportion of after-tax income spent on child care (%, 2019)
Child care costs - Average proportion of after-tax income spent on child care (%, 2019)
Text version
    Couples with children Lone parents
Quebec 0-5 yrs 4.3 5.1
6-12 yrs 1.3 2.0
Rest of Canada 0-5 yrs 5.5 6.3
6-12 yrs 2.9 4.5

Note: * indicates the use of different surveys within the same chart; use with caution. ** Low-wage work is defined as two-thirds of the median hourly wage of full-time, permanent employees aged 25-54 years. *** Indigenous includes only off-reserve Indigenous peoples, and recent immigrants are defined as those who obtained permanent residence in the last five years or less. **** indicates a high coefficient of variation; use with caution.

Sources: Labour Force Survey, 2016 Census, Canadian Survey on Disability, Canadian Community Health Survey,
Canadian Income Survey, General Social Survey.

As the dashboard above shows, barriers remain to full and equal participation for some Canadians.

Recognizing that varying socio-cultural factors and systemic discrimination may impede equal and full participation in economic activities, continued investments in reducing the wage gap, improving accessibility of affordable high-quality child care, and expanding community-based programming will support the government’s efforts for all Canadians to prosper.

Actions to Support Economic Participation and Prosperity
Key Results to Date
  • Agreements to build a Canada- wide early learning and child care system have now been signed by all 13 provinces and territories. Each agreement commits to reach an average fee of $10 per day by 2025-26, and most provinces and territories are moving faster than anticipated with initiatives to accelerate fee reductions and support access to affordable high-quality child care.
  • Since the introduction of the EI Parental Sharing Benefit, the number of men receiving benefits has grown by 40 per cent.
  • The Canada Labour Code was amended to establish a federal minimum wage of $15 that rises with inflation to help address the cost of living. On April 1, 2022, the federal minimum wage increased to $15.55.
Budget 2022 Actions*
  • Investing $625 million for an Early Learning and Child Care Infrastructure Fund to provide support to each province and territory for the implementation of Canada-wide child care, which helps parents with child care responsibilities and increases the labour force participation of women.
  • Employment strategy for persons with disabilities through the Opportunities Fund, including funding to Ready, Willing and Able to help persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder or intellectual disabilities find employment.
  • Supporting foreign credential recognition in the health sector will help skilled newcomers secure meaningful, well-paying jobs.

*Please refer to the Impacts Report to see other Budget 2022 investments that are expected to advance this pillar.

Education and Skills Development

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Leadership and Democratic Participation
Goal: Gender equality in leadership roles and at all levels of decision-making

All Canadians should be able to see themselves in their economic, political, and judicial leaders.

Economic leadership
Senior managers (%, 2016)
Senior managers (%, 2016)
Text version
  Senior managers Population (15+)
Women 28 51
Indigenous 3 4
Visible minority 11 21
Immigrant 19 25
Majority-ownership of SMEs
(%, 2020)*
Majority-ownership of SMEs
Text version
Majority-ownership Population (15+)
Women 16.8 51.2
Indigenous 1.1 4.3
Visible minority 9.3 21.2
Has a disability 0.6 22.3
Board directors and officers
(%, 2016)
Board directors and officers
Text version
Total All women 21.0
Men Immigrant 13.3
Visible minority 5.8
Indigenous 0.9
Women Immigrant 3.9
Visible minority 2.2
Indigenous 0.2
Political leadership
Federal political representation
(%, 2021-22)*
Federal political representation (%, 2021-22)*
Text version
  Members Ministers Population (15+)
Women 31 50 51
Indigenous 3 3 4
Visible minority 16 21 21
Immigrant 13 22 25
LGBTQ2 2 8 4
Federal political representatives who are women (%, 1867-2022)
Federal political representatives who are women (%, 1867-2022)
Text version
  MPs (30.5%) Ministers (50.0%) Senators (48.9%)
1st 0.0 0.0 0.0
2nd 0.0 0.0 0.0
3rd 0.0 0.0 0.0
4th 0.0 0.0 0.0
5th 0.0 0.0 0.0
6th 0.0 0.0 0.0
7th 0.0 0.0 0.0
8th 0.0 0.0 0.0
9th 0.0 0.0 0.0
10th 0.0 0.0 0.0
11th 0.0 0.0 0.0
12th 0.0 0.0 0.0
13th 0.0 0.0 0.0
14th 0.4 0.0 0.0
15th 0.4 0.0 0.0
16th 0.4 0.0 0.9
17th 0.4 0.0 1.6
18th 0.8 0.0 2.0
19th 0.4 0.0 1.8
20th 0.4 0.0 1.9
21st 0.0 0.0 3.6
22nd 1.5 0.0 5.7
23rd 0.8 4.8 5.1
24th 0.8 3.4 6.5
25th 1.9 4.8 5.9
26th 1.5 3.2 5.5
27th 1.5 3.0 5.1
28th 0.4 0.0 8.2
29th 1.9 0.0 7.8
30th 3.4 5.0 8.5
31st 3.5 4.8 10.7
32nd 5.0 5.4 11.2
33rd 9.6 15.8 13.8
34th 13.2 15.6 15.2
35th 18.0 20.7 21.8
36th 20.6 26.5 29.2
37th 20.6 24.0 34.5
38th 21.1 22.6 35.5
39th 20.8 20.7 34.7
40th 22.4 27.6 33.3
41st 24.7 26.5 36.1
42nd 26.0 47.7 45.1
43rd 29.0 47.4 48.0
44th 30.5 50.0 48.9
Political representatives who are women (%, 2022)**
Political representatives who are women (%, 2022)**
Text version
  Provinces and
territories
Municipalities First Nations
Band Council
Members or councillors 35 42 29
Premiers, mayors or chiefs 15 22 21
Judicial representation
Federal judges who are women (%)
Federal judges who are women (%)
Text version
1985 5.1
1986 5.7
1987 6.6
1988 7.2
1989 8.1
1990 9.0
1991 9.9
1992 11.3
1993 12.2
1994 13.0
1995 14.6
1996 16.2
1997 17.6
1998 19.0
1999 20.9
2000 23.1
2001 23.8
2002 25.0
2003 26.2
2004 26.9
2005 28.0
2006 28.9
2007 30.0
2008 31.1
2009 31.7
2010 32.1
2011 32.2
2012 32.6
2013 33.2
2014 34.1
2015 34.9
2016 36.3
2017 37.9
2018 39.4
2019 41.5
2020 43.4
2021 45.1
Federal judicial appointments (%, 2016-21)*
Federal judicial appointments (%, 2016-21)*
Text version
  Federal judicial appointments Population (15+)
Indigenous 3.8 4.3
Visible minority 10.0 21.2
Has a disability 0.8 22.3
LGBTQ2 6.8 4.0
Women 53.8 51.2
Law enforcement
Police officers (%, 2016)
Police officers (%, 2016)
Text version
    Police officers Population (15+)
Total All women 23.3 51.2
Men Indigenous 3.9 2.0
Visible minority 7.0 10.1
Immigrant 7.2 11.9
Women Indigenous 1.4 2.2
Visible minority 1.4 11.1
Immigrant 1.5 13.2
Police officers who are women (%)
Police officers who are women (%)
Text version
1986 3.9
1987 4.4
1988 5.1
1989 5.8
1990 6.4
1991 7.0
1992 7.5
1993 8.0
1994 9.1
1995 9.8
1996 10.4
1997 11.1
1998 12.2
1999 12.9
2000 13.7
2001 14.5
2002 15.3
2003 15.7
2004 16.5
2005 17.3
2006 17.9
2007 18.5
2008 18.7
2009 19.1
2010 19.2
2011 19.6
2012 19.9
2013 20.2
2014 20.6
2015 20.8
2016 21.1
2017 21.4
2018 21.8
2019 22.2
2020  
2021 22.4

Note: * indicates that estimates of population shares are from a different year (i.e. 2016). ** Estimates for municipalities only include those municipalities with over 200,000 residents in the 2021 Census.

Sources: 2016 Census, 2021 Census, Canadian Survey on Disability, Survey on Financing and Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises, Corporations Returns Act, Policy Options, Xtra Magazine, Parliament of Canada, Library of Parliament, provincial, territorial, and municipal websites, Indigenous Services Canada, Office of the Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs, Police Administration Survey.

As the dashboard above shows, hurdles remain to diversity and inclusion in positions of leadership in politics, business, justice, and law.

Women and diverse groups need to be integrated into leadership roles at all levels of decision-making in all sectors to ensure that our economy, democracy, law enforcement, and judicial systems reflect our communities. To support this goal, the government has invested and continues to invest in key measures to help women and diverse groups succeed in governance and economic opportunities.

Actions to Support Leadership and Democratic Participation
Key Results to Date
  • As of March 8, 2022, there were 1,485 organizations participating in the 50-30 Challenge, an initiative that asks organizations to aspire to gender parity (50 per cent) and significant representation (30 per cent) of other equity-deserving groups on their boards and in senior management positions.
  • Women and Gender Equality Canada has invested $55 million since 2015 to fund 115 projects supporting women and girls in leadership and decision-making roles. As a result, more than 1.4 million women and girls gained access to services and supports that resulted in better opportunities for leadership positions in various spheres.
  • The Women Entrepreneurship Knowledge Hub (WEKH) participated in, or co-sponsored, more than 1,400 events in 2020–21, including 90 events related to the impacts of the COVID19 pandemic on women entrepreneurs as well as webinars on supports for women entrepreneurs during the pandemic.
Budget 2022 Actions*
  • Creating a more diverse, responsive and open climate within the Department of National Defence and the military as well as enhancing health care and fitness programming for women and gender diverse members of the Canadian Armed Forces to encourage greater representation of women and underrepresented groups in senior leadership.
  • The creation of 24 new judicial positions in federal and provincial and territorial superior courts across the country through the superior courts’ judicial appointment process will continue to help increase the share of federally appointed judges who are women or who are members of underrepresented groups.
  • Providing additional funding for the Supporting Black Canadian Communities Initiative to continue empowering Black community organizations promote inclusiveness among Black Canadians.

*Please refer to the Impacts Report to see other Budget 2022 investments that are expected to advance this pillar.

Education and Skills Development

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Gender-Based Violence and Access to Justice
Goal: Eliminating gender-based violence and harassment, and promoting security of the person and access to justice

All Canadians should be safe and free from physical, emotional or sexual violence, discrimination, and harassment, regardless of where they live or who they are.

Workplace harassment
Workplace harassment (past 12 months, %, 2016)
Workplace harassment (past 12 months, %, 2016)
Text version
Men Women
Total 12.5 17.9
Indigenous 14.2 22.8
Visible minority 10.5 15.9
Immigrant 10.0 15.1
LGB 20.9 31.9
Has a disability 19.9 25.8
Workplace harassment by type (past 12 months, %, 2016)
Workplace harassment by type (past 12 months, %, 2016)
Text version
  Men Women
Total 13.2 18.7
Verbal abuse 9.7 12.5
Humiliating behaviour 4.8 5.8
Threats to person 2.8 2.8
Physical violence 1.5 3.1
Sexual harassement 0.7 3.8
Sexual assault
Self-reported sexual assault
(since age 15, %, 2018)
Sexual assault
Text version
  Men Women
Total 8.2 30.2
Immigrant 6.0 19.7
Visible minority 5.9 18.8
Indigenous 12.3 43.2
Has a disability 12.8 39.2
LGB 25.5 50.4
Police reporting of crime
Incidents of self-reported violent crime reported to police (%, 2019)
Sexual assault 6
Robbery 47
Physical assault 36
Household victimization 35
Personal property theft 28
All crimes 29
Childhood abuse
Self-reported childhood abuse (%, 2018)
Childhood abuse
Text version
  Men Women
Total 26.1 27.9
Immigrant 26.5 24.7
Visible minority 25.8 23.6
First Nations 32.0 42.4
Métis 36.8 43.6
Inuit 17.3 23.7
Has a disability 36.0 38.4
LGB 40.7 43.6
Intimate partner violence (IPV)
Self-reported IPV by type (since age 15, %, 2018)
Self-reported IPV by type (since age 15, %, 2018)
Text version
Women Men
Emotional, financial, or psychological 42.7 34.9
Physical abuse 23.0 16.5
Sexual abuse 11.5 2.0
Self-reported IPV (past 12 months, %, 2018)
Self-reported IPV (past 12 months, %, 2018)
Text version
  Women Men
Total 12 11
Visible minority 9 12
Immigrant 10 11
First Nations 16 16
Métis 15 15
Inuit 12 18
LGBTQ2 20 21
Has a disability 16 15
Homicide
Homicide (rate per 100,000)
Homicide (rate per 100,000)
Text version
    Indigenous Non-Indigenous
Men 2014 9.90 1.20
2015 11.32 1.36
2016 11.07 1.21
2017 11.18 1.34
2018 8.63 1.36
2019 11.00 1.33
2020 12.35 1.31
Women 2014 3.40 0.65
2015 4.42 0.72
2016 3.07 0.63
2017 3.52 0.69
2018 4.15 0.63
2019 3.64 0.51
2020 3.06 0.58
Homicide victim’s relationship to perpetrator (%, 2020)
Homicide victim’s relationship to perpetrator (%, 2020)
Text version
  Men Women
Stranger or unknown 29.4 13.2
Other relationship 48.5 25.7
Other family member 16.7 24.3
Intimate partner 5.4 36.8

Sources: General Social Survey, Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces, Homicide Survey, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey.

Experiences of gender-based violence—defined as violence that is committed against someone based on their gender identity, gender expression, or perceived gender—persist in Canada, and range from harassment to homicide. Other acts of physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering based on identity, such as race-based hate crimes, also exist. As the dashboard
above shows:

Gender- and identity-based violence against vulnerable groups is a systemic problem that reinforces unequal power relationships. To work toward eliminating such violence and harassment, the government has made and continues to make a number of investments to support victims and survivors through improved access to and confidence in the justice system.

Actions to Support Gender-Based Violence and Access to Justice
Key Results to Date
  • The RCMP has established a Sexual Assault Review Team, which has reviewed over 30,000 files from 2015-17 sexual assault investigations that were not cleared by charge.
  • As part of the government’s COVID-19 response, over 1,200 organizations across Canada received funding to ensure front line services and shelters continued to provide essential supports for women and families fleeing violence. Since April 2020, more than 1.3 million people experiencing gender-based violence have had a place to turn to thanks to the organizations supported through this funding.
  • On June 21, 2021, Bill C-15, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Act received Royal Assent and became law. This Act requires that the government develop an action plan by June 2023 to achieve the objectives of the Declaration.
Budget 2022 Actions*
  • Investments to support provinces and territories in advancing a National Action Plan to End Gender-Based Violence
  • Support the work underway to launch a new Anti-Racism Strategy and National Action Plan to Comb at Hate to reduce systemic racism, discrimination, and hate in Canada.
  • An increase in Federal Criminal Legal Aid funding to provinces and territories will improve the responsiveness of the Canadian criminal justice system and help to ensure everyone receives a fair hearing, including Indigenous peoples, Black Canadians, and vulnerable individuals, who are overrepresented before criminal courts.
  • Actions to address the shameful legacy of residential schools, including supporting community-led responses to unmarked burial sites, will increase the accountability and responsiveness of the Canadian criminal justice system.

* Please refer to the Impacts Report to see other Budget 2022 investments that are expected to advance this pillar.

Poverty Reduction, Health and Well-Being

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Poverty Reduction, Health and Well-Being
Goal: Reduced poverty and improved health outcomes

All Canadians should be free from poverty, have access to quality health care, and have opportunities to improve their well-being.

Poverty
Official poverty rate (%)
Poverty
Text version
  Men Women
2015 14.1 14.8
2016 12.4 13.4
2017 11.7 12.1
2018 11.3 11.1
2019 9.9 10.7
2020 6.3 6.4
Core Housing Need
Official poverty rate and core housing need (%, ~2018)*,**
Core Housing Need
Text version
  Poverty Core housing need
Total 10.1 9.7
Lone parents 23.1 24.8
Indigenous 18.0 16.0
Immigrant 11.6 12.8
Has a disability 16.6 15.3
Food security
Food security
Text version
Total 8.2
Lone parent 20.1
Indigenous 22.8
Immigrant 8.9
Has a disability 18.8
Visible minority 10.0
LGB 17.8
Life expectancy
Life expectancy at age 1 (yrs, 2011)
Life expectancy
Text version
  Men Women
First Nations 72.6 77.7
Métis 76.9 82.3
Inuit 70.0 76.1
Non-Indigenous 81.4 87.3
Cause of death
Distribution of leading causes of death (%, 2020)
Cause of death
Text version
  Men Women
Accidents 5.8 4.2
Cancer 26.9 25.7
Cerebrovascular diseases 3.8 5.2
COVID-19 4.9 5.6
Diseases of heart 18.5 16.4
Sports participation
Regular participation in sports (%, 2016)
Sports participation
Text version
  Men Women
Total 33.9 19.7
Indigenous 28.4 23.6
Visible minority 36.9 12.7
Immigrant 30.0 12.0
Has a disability 21.7 14.2
Psychological well-being
Excellent or very good mental health (15+ yrs, %, 2017-18)
Psychological well-being
Text version
  Men Women
Total 71.6 66.5
Visible minority 71.8 66.0
Indigenous 63.4 54.5
Immigrant 73.4 69.1
LGB 56.8 42.9
Has a disability 42.0 40.8
Contraceptive use
Sexually active and not using contraception (15-49 yrs, %, 2015-16)
Contraceptive use
Text version
  Men Women
Total 24.9 24.4
Immigrant 27.4 26.7
Visible minority 24.1 24.5
Indigenous 30.9 26.0
Early motherhood
Live births (rate per 1,000, women aged 15-19 yrs)
Early motherhood
Text version
1991 25.9
1992 25.6
1993 24.9
1994 25.0
1995 24.4
1996 22.1
1997 20.0
1998 19.8
1999 18.6
2000 17.0
2001 16.0
2002 14.9
2003 14.4
2004 13.5
2005 13.2
2006 13.4
2007 13.9
2008 14.1
2009 14.1
2010 13.2
2011 12.3
2012 12.1
2013 11.2
2014 10.3
2015 9.4
2016 8.4
2017 7.8
2018 6.7
2019 6.2
2020 5.5
Early motherhood
Mother before age 20 (%, 2011-12)***
Early motherhood
Text version
First Nations 28
Métis 20
Inuit 45
Non-Indigenous 6

Note: * indicates the use of different surveys within the same chart; use with caution. ** Indigenous includes only off- reserve Indigenous peoples. ***  First Nations includes only off-reserve First Nations and non-Indigenous includes only Canadian born non-Indigenous.

Sources: Canadian Income Survey, Canadian Survey on Disability, Canadian Community Health Survey, Vital Statistics Death Database, General Social Survey, Vital Statistics Birth Database.

Poverty and poor health are challenges faced by many Canadians that have deep and wide-ranging impacts. As the dashboard above shows:

To reduce poverty and support the health and well-being of Canadians, the government has introduced a number of important investments for vulnerable individuals that improve access to food, housing and health resources, including mental health. The combination of these measures responds to the multidimensional nature of poverty.

Actions to Support Poverty Reduction, Health and Well-Being
Key Results to Date
  • Between 2015 and 2020, more than two and a half million Canadians were lifted out of poverty. Reductions between 2015 and 2019 reflected economic growth and a number of measures like the Canada Child Benefit, an increase to the Guaranteed Income Supplement top- up for single seniors, and the Canada Workers Benefit. Reductions between 2019 and 2020 overwhelmingly reflect unprecedented and temporary government income support measures during the pandemic.
  • As of December 2021, funding made available through the National Housing Strategy had been committed to create over 91,000 units, to repair over 209,000 units, and to provide affordability support to over 172,000 households, prioritizing those in greatest need, including seniors, Indigenous peoples, people experiencing or at risk of homelessness, and women and children fleeing violence. More than 26 per cent of funding committed to date has been for projects focused on meeting the housing needs of women and their children.
  • Since November 2015, 131 long- term drinking water advisories have been lifted and 212 short- term drinking water advisories have been prevented from becoming long-term.
Budget 2022 Actions*
  • Beginning the development of a mental health fund for Black public servants, and improving cultural sensitivity of existing mental health supports for Black employees and other equity- deserving groups.
  • Introducing a national pilot project for a Menstrual Equity Fund to make it easier for people who menstruate to fully participate in school, work, and society.
  • Advancing the National Housing Co-Investment Fund to accelerate the creation of up to 4,300 new units and the repair of up to 17,800 units.
  • Introducing significant investments in affordable housing and reducing homelessness, including through the Rapid Housing Initiative and Reaching Home.
  • Maintaining trauma-informed, culturally appropriate, Indigenous- led services to improve mental wellness for Indigenous peoples and their communities and supporting continued efforts to co-develop distinctions-based mental health and wellness strategies.

*Please refer to the Impacts Report to see other Budget 2022 investments that are expected to advance this pillar.

Gender Equality Around the World

Gender Results Framework
Pillar: Gender Equality Around the World
Goal: Promoting gender equality to build a more peaceful, inclusive, rules-based, and prosperous world

Canada believes that women and girls are powerful agents of change. With the proper resources and opportunities, they can improve their own lives and the lives of their families, communities, and countries.

Education and skills
Literacy rate among youth (15-24 yrs, %)
Literacy rate among youth (15-24 yrs, %)
Text version
  Boys Girls
1975 84.4 70.0
1976 84.4 70.0
1977 84.4 70.3
1978 84.6 71.1
1979 84.8 72.0
1980 85.0 72.7
1981 85.1 73.5
1982 85.2 74.3
1983 85.4 74.8
1984 85.5 75.5
1985 85.6 76.1
1986 85.7 76.7
1987 86.1 77.5
1988 87.0 77.9
1989 87.1 78.3
1990 87.3 78.8
1991 87.4 79.2
1992 87.6 79.5
1993 87.9 79.8
1994 88.0 80.2
1995 88.1 80.6
1996 88.2 81.1
1997 88.7 82.3
1998 89.6 82.8
1999 89.8 83.2
2000 89.8 83.3
2001 89.8 83.8
2002 90.3 84.3
2003 90.8 84.9
2004 91.1 85.5
2005 91.4 85.5
2006 91.5 86.1
2007 91.1 86.1
2008 91.9 86.9
2009 91.9 87.1
2010 91.7 87.3
2011 91.8 87.7
2012 92.2 88.3
2013 92.4 88.8
2014 92.6 89.3
2015 92.5 89.4
2016 92.8 90.0
2017 92.9 90.3
2018 92.7 90.3
2019 92.8 90.5
2020 92.9 90.8
Literacy rate among youth
(15-24 yrs, %, excl. high income countries, 2020)
Literacy rate among youth (15-24 yrs, %, excl. high income countries, 2020)
Text version
  Boys Girls
East Asia and Pacific 98.8 98.9
Europe and Central Asia 99.8 99.8
Latin America and Caribbean 98.5 98.8
Middle East and North Africa 91.3 86.9
Sub-Saharan Africa 79.2 74.2
Economic participation and prosperity
Labour force participation rate (%, 25-54 yrs, 2020 or latest)
Labour force participation rate (%, 25-54 yrs, 2020 or latest)
Text version
  Men Women
Central and South Asia 96.8 29.4
Latin America and the Carribean 94.1 64.5
North America and Europe 92.1 77.5
Oceania* 58.7 54.9
Southeast Asia 94.5 72.0
Sub-Saharan Africa 92.1 77.1
West Asia and North Africa 92.8 29.2
Countries (%, 2022)
Countries (%, 2022)
Text version
No prohibition against gender discrimination in employment 15.8
No legislation on sexual harassment in employment 24.2
No mandate on equal remuneration for work of equal value 50.0
Dismissal of pregnant workers is permitted 22.1
Leadership and democratic participation
United Nations police and military personnel who are women (%)
United Nations police and military personnel who are women (%) National parliamentary seats
Text version
2009 2.9
2010 3.2
2011 3.6
2012 3.7
2013 3.8
2014 3.8
2015 4
2016 4.4
2017 4.3
2018 4.9
2019 5.8
2020 6.6
2021 7.3
National parliamentary seats held by women (%)
National parliamentary seats held by women (%)
Text version
1997 11.7
1998 13.1
1999 13.5
2000 13.9
2001 14.1
2002 15.2
2003 15.2
2004 15.9
2005 16.5
2006 17
2007 17.9
2008 18.4
2009 19
2010 19.2
2011 19.8
2012 20.8
2013 21.8
2014 22.2
2015 22.8
2016 23.1
2017 23.6
2018 24.1
2019 24.6
2020 25.6
2021 25.6
National parliamentary seats held by women (%, 02/22)
National parliamentary seats held by women (%, 02/22)
Text version
Americas 33.9
Europe 31.1
Sub-Saharan Africa 25.9
Asia 20.7
MENA** 16.9
Pacific 20.9
Gender-based violence
Female genital mutilation (0-14 yrs, %, 2020 or latest)***
Gender-based violence - Female genital mutilation
Text version
Poorest wealth quintile 29.6
Second 27.6
Middle 26.7
Fourth 27.2
Richest wealth quintile 22.5
Gender-based violence
Non-partner sexual violence (15-69 yrs, %, 2010)
Gender-based violence - Non-partner sexual violence
Text version
Low income Africa 11.9
Americas 10.7
Europe 5.2
Southeast Asia 4.9
West Pacific 6.8
High income   12.6
Sexual health
Contraceptive prevalence (women, 15-49 yrs, %, 2019)
Sexual health - Contraceptive prevalence
Text version
Africa 29.4
Asia 50.3
Europe 56.1
South America**** 58.0
North America 62.4
Oceania 49.2

Note: * Data for Oceania exclude New Zealand and Australia. ** MENA indicates Middle East and North Africa. *** Data represent a weighted average of 19 countries with shares over 3 per cent. **** South America includes Latin America and the Caribbean.

Sources: United Nations Peacekeeping, Inter-Parliamentary Union, UNICEF, World Bank, World Health Organization, International Labour Organization, United Nations.

Although gender equality around the world has dramatically improved over time, there is much work to do. As the dashboard above shows:

To promote gender equality and build more peaceful, inclusive and rules-based societies, women and girls need to be afforded meaningful opportunities to participate in the economy and society. To support this, Canada’s investments both domestically and abroad have targeted the elimination of economic and social barriers that impede women’s meaningful participation in the labour market, politics, business, and leadership.

Actions to Support Gender Equality Around the World
Key Results to Date
  • The Women’s Voice and Leadership Program supports more than 800 local women’s rights organizations working to advance gender equality and empowers women across 31 developing countries and regions.
  • Canada's diplomatic representation has made progress towards gender balance. In 2021, 47 per cent of heads of missions were women, up from 32 per cent in 2015—
    this includes ambassadors, high commissioners, and consuls general.
  • Business Women in International Trade led 19 trade missions in 2020-21 involving 254 participants from women-owned businesses and business support organizations. This compares to 8 trade missions involving 85 participants in 2018-19.
Budget 2022 Actions*
  • Supporting vulnerable persons in Ukraine through humanitarian assistance.
  • Providing further support to the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator to ensure that Canada continues to provide its fair share in support of global efforts to improve access to vaccines, therapeutics, and other tools to fight COVID-19.
  • Providing support to address global health security priorities, such as infectious disease prevention and response.

*Please refer to the Impacts Report to see other Budget 2022 investments that are expected to advance this pillar.

Canada’s Quality of Life Framework

The Quality of Life Framework supports inclusive and sustainable growth, ensuring that the government’s focus on the quantity of growth is complemented with consideration of the quality of growth; that is, ensuring that the purpose of growth is to meaningfully improve the well-being of people who live in Canada.

Public opinion research commissioned by the Department of Finance in August 2020 to inform framework development found that 86 per cent of respondents believed it was either very important (71 per cent) or somewhat important (15 per cent) for the federal government to move beyond solely traditional economic measurements.

Chart A4.1:
Text version

Quality of Life

Prosperity

Health

Society

Good Governance

Environment

Fairness and Inclusion

Sustainability and Resilience

This image illustrates the Quality of Life Framework.  It is represented as a circular graphic with the term 'Quality of Life' at its centre, and is divided into five segments which represent each of the five domains of the framework.  The Prosperity domain is represented by an image of a line graph, the Health domain with a heart, Society by a group of people, Environment by trees, and Good Governance by a building.  The two cross-cutting lenses of the framework encircle the image, represented by curved arrows.

Drawing on the evidence of what makes for a good quality of life, the Framework is composed of five interrelated domains— prosperity, health, society, good governance, and environment— along with two cross-cutting lenses, the fairness and inclusion lens, and the sustainability and resilience lens. Taken as whole, the Framework provides a structured means for the government to think in an integrated, inclusive, and long- term way about how its decisions impact the lives of Canadians.

Fundamentally, the Framework is about measuring what matters most to Canadians through a suite of 85 indicators that take a holistic view of societal progress. With this in mind, Budget 2021 made a series of significant investments aimed at improving federal data sets. One year later, these investments are helping fill key gaps in our knowledge about how Canadians have been experiencing their lives, including through tools like Statistics Canada’s quarterly Canadian Social Survey. These investments help to better understand important issues like the experience of loneliness among Canadians, unpaid work and family time, and the extent to which Canadians experience meaning and purpose in their lives.

On March 30, Statistics Canada launched the beta version of its new Quality of Life Hub, a first step towards bringing together key economic, social, and environmental datasets with a simple and intuitive user interface. Concurrently, historic investments in disaggregated data will ensure that breakdowns of these and other key data are available for different groups. Investments in Indigenous-led data strategies are an enabler for self-determination. Moreover, a Census of the Environment will catalogue all ecosystems in Canada.

Selected Indicators of Well-Being Before and During COVID-19

While economic indicators have rebounded from the pandemic shock relatively quickly, some well-being outcomes are recovering more slowly, including self-reported mental health. Budget 2022 builds on previous investments to help Canadians access mental health supports and services.

Charts 1 and 2

Mental Health, Life Satisfaction, and Overall Health, Population Aged 15 Years and Over, Per Cent

Before COVID-19
Before COVID-19

Source: Canadian Community Health Survey.

Text version
Excellent or very good mental health Very satisfied or satisfied with life Excellent or very good health
2015 72 88 62
2016 70 88 61
2017 70 88 60
2018 68 88 60
2019 67 88 61
During COVID-19
During COVID-19

Source: Canadian Community Health Survey, Canadian Perspectives Survey Series, and Canadian Social Survey

Text version
Excellent or very good mental health Very satisfied or satisfied with life Excellent or very good health
Early 2020 66 87 60
Mid
2020
52 60 66
Late 2020 64 87 63
Early 2021 57 84 60
Mid
2021
52 75 57
Late 2021 53 79 55

Combined, these and other quality of life indicators paint an overall picture of how Canadians are doing that can inform priority-setting for policy
development. The Quality of Life Framework builds on Canada’s world-leading Gender-based Analysis Plus approach by introducing a standardized set of domains and indicators to bring a more structured and consistent approach to assessing the nature as well as the distribution of impacts.

Summary of Budget 2022’s Gender, Diversity, and Quality of Life Impacts

The government is committed to applying Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA Plus) and quality of life indicators in decision-making, to ensure that policies and programs take into account impacts on people from a variety of perspectives. Results of this analysis are included in the Impacts Report, and summarized in this section.

Timing of GBA Plus and Responsive Approaches

Chart 3
When GBA Plus Was First Performed
Chart 3: When GBA Plus Was First Performed
Text version
GBA+ Timing Budget 2021 Budget 2022
Existing 10% 11
Early 41% 73
Mid-point 34% 103
Later 15% 34

GBA Plus for Budget 2022 measures were conducted in a timely manner overall, with this analysis being performed either early or at the mid- point of policy development. The timing of such analysis reflects the change in the GBA Plus landscape across the federal government over the last few years, as demonstrated by the experiences of Budget 2021 and the current budget, where gender and diversity analysis has been increasingly integrated at earlier stages of the policy process. Of note, the greater share of analysis performed at the mid-point stage in this budget is due to a number of measures which are extensions of existing programs. In these cases, the existing analysis was relied upon and updated as necessary. Women and Gender Equality Canada will continue to provide training, tools, and resources to foster best practices in GBA Plus, including timely analysis.

Chart 4
Responsive Approaches
Chart 4: Responsive Approaches
Text version
Negative Impacts Possible Includes Mitigation Strategies 33%
No Mitigation Stragegies 67%
Barriers to Access/Participation Possible Includes Steps for Reducing Barriers 85%
No Steps for Reducing Barriers 15%

Gender and diversity analysis helps identify barriers to access or participation, as well as unintentional negative impacts. Where identified, program design should incorporate steps to lower these barriers, or mitigate negative impacts (if unintentional). 12 per cent of Budget 2022 measures identified a potential barrier to access or participation for a specific demographic group. Of these, the majority (85 per cent) included steps towards reducing these barriers. Only 10 per cent of Budget 2022 measures identified possible negative impacts on a specific population. Of these, nearly one third included mitigation strategies. In cases where no mitigation strategy was included, this was often as a result of a policy designed to level the playing field or create greater equity by addressing unproductive or unequitable practices, in areas such as the tax system. An example of this are the new rules to ensure profits from flipping properties are subject to full taxation.

Target Population

Chart 5
Share of Budget 2022 Investments
($ value of measures*)
Chart 5: Share of Budget 2022 Investments

*Excluding Tax Fairness and Savings Measures

Text version
Target Population Value
All Canadians 21750.83
Specific Region/Sector 12385.24
Other Subgroups 5097.41
Canadians Experiencing Housing Affordability Challenges 6223.20
Indigenous peoples 10993.96
Individuals with Disabilities or Health Problems 570.53
57021.17

A sizable share of Budget 2022 investments target all Canadians (38 per cent of the budget). Other measures target a region or sector (22 per cent of the budget), or a specific group of the population (40 per cent of the budget)—including Indigenous peoples, people with disabilities or health conditions, Canadians experiencing housing affordability challenges, and other groups. Some measures target more than one group. For example, Renewing and Expanding the Oceans Protection Plan is expected to target specific regions and Indigenous peoples. Targeted support is often aimed at challenges or opportunities unique to subgroups of Canadians. For example, targeted support for Indigenous peoples is expected to address housing in Indigenous communities and critical community infrastructure on reserves including water and wastewater systems, and the launch of a new Veteran Homelessness Program will provide services and rent supplements to veterans experiencing homelessness.

Expected Benefits: Gender

Chart 6
Share of Budget 2022 Investments
($ value of measures*)
Chart 6: Share of Budget 2022 Investments

*Excluding Tax Fairness and Savings Measures

Text version
Gender Six year total
Gender Balanced 24,623.34
Men  6,662.34
Defence Commitments (Indirectly/directly benefitting men) 6,600
Low Carbon Economy (Indirectly benefitting men) 6,100
Housing Accelerator Fund (Indirectly benefitting men) 4,000
Women 2,707.5
Dental Care (Indirectly benefitting women) 5,300

Nearly half of Budget 2022 measures are expected to benefit women and men in equal proportions (44 per cent). The remaining measures (42 per cent) are expected to directly or indirectly benefit men, while a smaller share (14 per cent), would directly or indirectly benefit women. This relative disparity reflects the fact that men are overrepresented in certain sectors benefitting from many of the climate and infrastructure related measures in this budget. Although these measures will ultimately benefit all Canadians, the workforce in these sectors are predominantly men, who, in turn, will indirectly benefit from the increased economic opportunities associated with these investments. For example, the construction and clean technology sectors are indirectly benefitting from the Low Carbon Economy Fund Expansion, while the agricultural sector is directly benefitting from the expansion of the Agricultural Clean Technology Program.

Workers in all three of these sectors are predominantly men. Similarly, all Canadians will benefit from enhanced safety and security resulting from increased defence spending, and these investments will also directly enhance the capabilities and capacity of members within the Canadian Armed Forces. Overall, however, the Canadian military is still predominantly men—in 2020 for instance, the representation of women in the Canadian Armed Forces was only 16 per cent for Regular Force and Primary Reserve members.

This disparity also arises from the fact that on average men continue to have higher income levels than women. For example, for zero-emission vehicles, income is one of the factors driving adoption. Men are therefore more likely to benefit the Incentives for Zero- Emission Vehicles Program. Finally, a lack of gender parity among certain sectoral business owners and shareholders results in men disproportionately benefitting from certain measures including the Investment Tax Credit for Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage and the Critical Mineral Exploration Tax Credit. This highlights that gender segregation in the workforce and an imbalance in control of and ownership over resources is still prevalent in Canada.

That said, many of the Budget 2022 investments are expected to directly or indirectly benefit women given the composition of the workforce. For example, women comprise nearly eight out of ten workers in the dental sector and are therefore expected to indirectly benefit from investments in Dental Care for Canadians. Other Budget 2022 measures include features that will serve to achieve greater gender equality over time. For example, the doubling of the Union Training and Innovation Program is expected to increase the number of women and other equity-deserving groups in high-paying skilled trade jobs. Additionally, funding to Support Cultural Change in the Canadian Armed Forces is expected to create a healthier, more diverse, responsive, and open climate within the Canadian military. This is expected to ultimately translate to greater representation of women and other underrepresented groups across the Canadian Armed Forces and in leadership positions. Where women face barriers to entry, retention, or advancement in the sectors being funded there are, for a number of measures, program or policy design elements that will be introduced, or are already in place, to address these barriers. These are highlighted in the Impacts Report. For example, each of Canada’s Innovation Clusters undertakes ecosystem building activities that support the economic inclusion of underrepresented groups. Similarly, the development of the Canada Green Buildings Strategy will include training and capacity- building support specifically for equity-deserving groups, including women, in order to try to increase representation in the energy efficiency workforce. Lastly, the CAN Health Network recognizes that its support to scale-up health focused small and medium-sized businesses will not directly address the challenges women and other underrepresented groups face in working in or owning businesses in the health technology and life sciences sectors. CAN Health Network will therefore support women and other underrepresented groups through development opportunities, and provide information to participating companies about government programs to help them diversify their workforces.

Finally, Budget 2022 builds on the foundational investments towards greater gender equality introduced in Budget 2021, including additional funding to support the implementation of the Canada-wide Early Learning and Child Care System, which is expected to increase women’s labour market participation. This budget also invests funding to support provincial and territorial governments in advancing the National Action Plan to End Gender-Based Violence and introduces a pilot for a Menstrual Equity Fund to make it easier for people who menstruate to fully participate in school, work, and society.

Expected Benefits: Additional Characteristics

Chart 7
Expected Direct and Indirect Benefits by Subgroup, Number of Measures
Chart 7: Expected Direct and Indirect Benefits by Subgroup, Number of Measures
Text version
Direct and indirect beneficiaries Count
LGBTQ2 16
Persons with Disabilities or Health Conditions 35
Students 10
Indigenous peoples 49
Visible Minorities 23
Rural 22
Urban 9
Newcomers 17
Lone Parent Household 3

Budget 2022 measures were assessed in terms of expected direct and indirect benefits for various subgroups of Canadians, which are highlighted in Chart 7. A number of measures in this budget are identified as benefitting persons with disabilities, most notably the Employment Strategy for Persons with Disabilities, which is designed to address the labour market barriers faced by persons with disabilities. Similarly, Indigenous peoples are expected to directly benefit from a large number of measures, including support for Distinctions-based Mental Health and Wellness strategies, to improve housing and access to clean water, and help Indigenous communities build sustainable revenue streams for the future. Budget measures can also benefit more than one group or a subgroup with intersecting identities. For example, Speeding up Housing Construction and Repairs for Vulnerable Canadians will benefit Canadians experiencing housing affordability challenges. There is evidence that women-led households have a higher incidence of core housing need compared to men-led households. This gap becomes larger when intersecting factors are taken into account—e.g., whether a single parent, or a member of a racialized group. Additionally, certain subgroups who experience greater challenges accessing affordable housing will disproportionately benefit from this measure. These subgroups include persons with disabilities and Indigenous peoples.

Expected Benefits: Intergenerational and Income Distribution Impacts

Chart 8
Expected Intergenerational Benefits, Share of Budget 2022 Investments
($ value of measures*)
Chart 8: Expected Intergenerational Benefits, Share of Budget 2022 Investments

*Excluding Tax Fairness and Savings Measures

Text version
Generational Impacts Column 1
Primarily benefits seniors or the baby boom generation 2,114
No significant inter-generational impacts 41,838
Primarily benefits youth, children and/or future generations 12,041
Chart 9
Expected Income Distribution Impacts, Share of Budget 2022 Investments
($ value of measures*)
Chart 9: Expected Income Distribution Impacts,
Share of Budget 2022 Investments

*Excluding Tax Fairness and Savings Measures

Text version
Income Distribution 6 year total
Strongly benefits low income individuals  8,117.03
Somewhat benefits low income individuals 20,140.16
No significant distributional impacts 15,480.87
Somewhat benefits high income individuals 12,255.11
Strongly benefits high income individuals 0

Consideration was given to how each Budget 2022 measure could affect different generations of Canadians and Canadians with varying income levels. The majority of measures introduced in this budget (75 per cent of the value of Budget 2022 measures) are expected to benefit all generations equally. A significant share (22 per cent), however, are expected to disproportionately benefit youth, children or future generations, reflecting in part the number of investments in climate related measures. For example, the expansion of the Low Carbon Economy Fund will particularly benefit future generations. Additionally, the introduction of an Employment Strategy for Persons with Disabilities through the Opportunities Fund is expected to disproportionately benefit young people with disabilities entering the labour market. Other specific measures in Budget 2022 would benefit seniors or older generations relatively more than other age groups. Notable measures include funding to address backlogs for surgeries and procedures. Seniors have higher needs for surgical procedures, representing over 40 per cent of total monthly surgical volumes, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, despite comprising only 19 per cent of the Canadian population.

Half of Budget 2022 investments are expected to benefit lower income Canadians. For example, the extension of the Rapid Housing Initiative is expected to strongly benefit low income individuals. The remainder of investments will either have no significant distributional impacts (28 per cent) or are expected to benefit higher income Canadians (22 per cent). For example, many business supports and incentives, including the creation of a Canadian Innovation and Investment Agency and the Investment Tax Credit for Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage, are expected to benefit business owners and shareholders as well as workers in STEM fields, many of whom are disproportionately higher income Canadians.

Expected Quality of Life Impacts: Expenditure by Domain 

Chart 10
Composition of Budget 2022 Investments
($ value of measures, by domain*)
Chart 10: Composition of Budget 2022 Investments

*Excluding Tax Fairness and Savings Measures

Text version
Domain Billion
Prosperity $22.7
Health $11.2
Environment $5.9
Good Governance $12.8
Society $4.4
Total $57.0

Budget measures were assessed in terms of their expected contribution to each of the 85 Quality of Life indicators, which are organized into five domains. Some flagship measures make a substantial direct contribution to one of these outcomes, but most combine with other measures to make a smaller or more indirect contribution. Many budget measures advance more than one domain. In these cases, the pie chart allocates spending between implicated domains, using weights. Some invoke trade-offs, where one domain is advanced but another is impeded. The Quality of Life Framework offers a structured approach to assessing these impacts.

The greatest share of the value of Budget 2022 measures is expected to advance outcomes in the prosperity domain, which includes inclusive growth priorities such as housing. The second greatest share advances outcomes in the good governance domain, which includes international engagement initiatives and Indigenous self- determination and prosperity. Budget 2022 is expected to have significant impacts in all domains of the Framework. Over 90 per cent of the value of budget measures is expected to have positive impacts in multiple domains. The greatest combined impact is prosperity and environment, reflecting a Budget 2022 focus on long-term economic growth and transition to a net-zero economy.

Expected Quality of Life Impacts: Indicator Frequency

Chart 11
Count of Budget 2022 Measures, Top Ten Expected Impacts by Domain

Prosperity
Employment 43
Firm growth 33
Acceptable housing 19
Productivity 17
Future outlook 17
Debt-to-GDP ratio 17
Financial well-being 16
GDP per capita 16
Investment in R&D 16
Household wealth 12
Health
Self-rated mental health 27
Health-adjusted life expectancy 20
Self-rated health 19
Unmet health care needs 17
Unmet needs for mental health care 9
Vulnerable children 7
Timely access to primary care 4
Physical activity 4
Functional health status 4
Home care needs met 3
Environment
Greenhouse gas emissions 35
Climate change adaptation 14
Natural disasters and emergencies 10
Air quality 8
Satisfaction with local environment 4
Canadian Species Index 3
Waste management 3
Access to public transit 2
Clean drinking water 2
Coastal and marine protection 2
Walkability index 2
Governance
Confidence in institutions 62
Canada's place in the world 29
Discrimination and unfair treatment 21
Indigenous self-determination 20
Personal safety 9
Access to fair and equal justice 9
Misinformation/trust in media 6
Crime Severity Index 5
Household emergency preparedness 3
Representation in leadership 2
Society
Sense of belonging to local community 32
Positive perceptions of diversity 22
Participation (cultural/religious/recreation/sport) 16
Sense of pride/belonging to Canada 15
Accessible environmments 11
Satisfaction with personal relationships (family/friends) 5
Time use 4
Loneliness 3
Trust in others 3
Satisfaction with time use 2

The Impacts Report, which follows, lists expected quality of life impacts for each budget measure. Chart 11 summarizes these impacts, listing the most frequently cited indicators for which Budget 2022 measures are expected to have positive impacts of any scale. Since some measures are smaller than others, these counts differ from the share of budget value associated with each indicator. For example, acceptable housing and financial well-being (households’ ability to meet the cost of living) were associated with the greatest share of expenditure among indicators in the prosperity domain. Reducing unmet health care needs and self-rated health made of the greatest share for the health domain. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions along with climate change adaptation made up the greatest share for the environment domain. As noted above, not all measures that contribute towards an outcome—notably, reducing emissions, or increasing employment—will result in net new impacts that will be large enough to influence the national trajectory. Given the high degree of uncertainty and modelling challenges such as interaction effects between measures, the government is strengthening its capability to estimate impact size for these priority outcomes consistently.

Expected Quality of Life Impacts: Long-term Impacts

Chart 12
Share of Budget 2022 Investments Expected to Carry Long-term Returns
($ value of measures, by domain*)
Chart 12: Share of Budget 2022 Investments Expected to Carry Long-term Returns

*Excluding Tax Fairness and Savings Measures

Text version
Domain Billion
Prosperity $18.3
Health $9.6
Environment $4.8
Good Governance $10.7
Society $2.0
All impacts in next 5 years $11.6
Total $57.0

Budget measures were assessed in terms of the scale and duration of expected impacts on quality of life indicators. Many of the initiatives in Budget 2022 are time-limited in nature. As a result, some impacts will naturally occur only within the next five years—for example, impacts from support measures associated with the pandemic recovery. However, just over three-quarters of Budget 2022 investments are also expected to carry long-term returns that are moderate to significant over the 5-10 year period or longer. These could be national in scope, or affect regions, sectors or population sub-groups. This suggests that Budget 2022 is targeted towards achieving long-term economic, environmental, and social value for Canadians. Due to synergies between domains and weights explained in Chart 10, expenditure associated with some measures from Chart 12 could be allocated across multiple domains (e.g., split between prosperity and environment).

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